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What Is the Formula for Calculating Earnings per Share EPS?

Generally speaking, companies with unstable margins, payout ratios, and many non-recurring items in their income statements are signs of unsustainable or low-quality earnings. However, looking at a company’s EPS trend over time may help judge the profitability strength and is also useful for future forecasting. Let’s say that a company has consistently produced higher EPS figures compared to comparable companies in the same (or adjacent) sector. As noted in the discussion surrounding anti-dilutive shares, a company can post a net loss, or negative net profit. First, the exercise price of the options or warrants may be above the trading price. In that case, the shares underlying the options are excluded because, at the moment, they are not going to be exercised.

Get instant access to lessons taught by experienced private equity pros and bulge bracket investment bankers including financial statement modeling, DCF, M&A, LBO, Comps and Excel Modeling. Being able to generate positive and increasing cash flow is a requirement for long-term growth sustainability. If a company wants to reinvest in itself continuously, pay down debt, and reward shareholders, cash flow is needed, specifically free cash flow.

An analyst will want to know what the EPS was for just the 400 stores the company plans to continue with into the next period. If you have an interest in stock trading or investing, your next step is to choose a broker that works for your investment style. Watch this short video to quickly understand the main concepts covered in this guide, including what Earnings Per Share is, the formula for EPS, and an example of EPS calculation. Paul Boyce is an economics editor with over 10 years experience in the industry. Currently working as a consultant within the financial services sector, Paul is the CEO and chief editor of BoyceWire.

  1. This can be for a number of reasons, including being part of the compensation plans of the company or as convertible debt/common stock.
  2. The earnings per share ratio will help that investor understand the capacity a company has for higher dividends in the future.
  3. Dilutive securities refer to any financial instrument that can be converted or can increase the number of common shares outstanding for the company.
  4. A higher ratio means a company is profitable enough to pay out large sums to its shareholders.
  5. Moreover, the company’s outstanding preferred shares have a face value of $80 and a preferred dividend rate of 8%.

It is also a major component of calculating the price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio, where the E in P/E refers to EPS. By dividing a company’s share price by its earnings per share, an investor can see the value of a stock in terms of how much the market is willing to pay for each dollar of earnings. Diluted EPS, which accounts for the impact of convertible preferred shares, options, warrants, and other dilutive securities, was $1.56. Remember, while EPS can provide valuable insights into a company’s profitability, it doesn’t give the full picture of a company’s financial health. Always consider EPS alongside other financial metrics when making investment decisions.

Importance of Earning per share (EPS)

Capital structures that do not include potentially dilutive securities are called simple capital structures. The section will contain the EPS figures on a basic and diluted basis, as well as the share counts used to compute the EPS. On a fully diluted basis, our company has a total of 180 million shares outstanding. Adjusted EPS is a type of EPS calculation in which the analyst makes adjustments to the numerator. Typically, this consists of adding or removing components of net income that are deemed to be non-recurring. For instance, if the company’s net income was increased based on a one-time sale of a building, the analyst might deduct the proceeds from that sale, thereby reducing net income.

Increasing basic EPS, however, does not mean the company is generating greater earnings on a gross basis. Companies can repurchase shares, decreasing their share count as a result and spread net income less preferred dividends over fewer common shares. Basic EPS could increase even if absolute earnings decrease with a falling common share count. To calculate earnings per share, take a company’s net income and subtract that from preferred dividends. Then divide that amount by the average number of outstanding common shares.

Calculating Diluted EPS

He has written publications for FEE, the Mises Institute, and many others. Once these numbers are gathered, simply plug them into the formula to calculate EPS.

Basic earnings per share (EPS) tells investors how much of a firm’s net income was allotted to each share of common stock. It is reported in a company’s income statement and is especially informative for businesses with only common stock in their capital structures. Investors purchase the stocks of a company to earn dividends and sell the stocks in the future at higher prices.

What Is the Difference Between Basic EPS and Diluted EPS?

Diluted EPS, on the other hand, will always be equal to or lower than basic EPS because it includes a more expansive definition of the company’s shares outstanding. Specifically, it incorporates shares that are not currently outstanding but could become outstanding if stock options and other convertible securities were to be apportionment exercised. Basic EPS consists of the company’s net income divided by its outstanding shares. It is the figure most commonly reported in the financial media and is also the simplest definition of EPS. Earnings per share is one of the most important metrics employed when determining a firm’s profitability on an absolute basis.

The EPS formula indicates a company’s ability to produce net profits for common shareholders. It’s important to note that companies often have multiple types of EPS figures, like ‘basic’ and ‘diluted’. Basic EPS does not factor in the dilutive securities like stock options, convertible bonds, etc. Diluted EPS, on the other hand, assumes all dilutive securities are exercised. Diluted EPS is generally considered a more accurate measurement and is particularly important for companies with complex capital structures. Basic EPS does not account for dilution – the reduction in earnings per share or the increase in the number of shares due to potential sources like stock options, convertible securities, or additional shares.

In terms of our assumptions for preferred dividends, we’ll keep the amount fixed at $5mm each year. But the impact on basic EPS should be rather intuitive – i.e. increased preferred dividends causes lower EPS (and vice versa). Negative EPS typically isn’t good news — but on its own, it doesn’t necessarily mean a stock is uninvestable, or even too expensive. A company with negative earnings per share is not necessarily a company with little or no value. Why the EPS is negative usually is more important than by how much it’s negative. Earnings per share shows up on the profit and loss statement; book value (also known as shareholders’ equity) on the balance sheet.

Is there any other context you can provide?

All such information is provided solely for convenience purposes only and all users thereof should be guided accordingly. All else being equal, the market tends to be willing to pay more for companies with higher net profits. Therefore, our baseline basic EPS figure following moderately positive performance is $2.10 in 2021. $3 per share in EPS would be impressive if the company earned only $1 per share the year before.

Investors should compute the company’s EPS for several years and compare them with the EPS figures of other similar companies to select the most appropriate investment option. But in actuality, stock splits and reverse splits can still affect a company’s share price, which depends on the market’s perception of the decision. Although EPS is widely used as a way to track a company’s performance, shareholders do not have direct access to those profits. A portion of the earnings may be distributed as a dividend, but all or a portion of the EPS can be retained by the company. Shareholders, through their representatives on the board of directors, would have to change the portion of EPS that is distributed through dividends to access more of those profits.

Likewise, a shrinking EPS figure might nonetheless lead to a price increase if analysts were expecting an even worse result. It is important to always judge EPS in relation to the company’s share price, such as by looking at the company’s P/E or earnings yield. Diluted EPS includes options, convertible securities, and warrants outstanding that can affect total shares outstanding when exercised.

So, for every share of Company A that is outstanding, the company earned $5 during the fiscal year. On the other hand, conservative accounting practices may also be employed by expensing more often than not, decreasing salvage values, early recognition of impairments, etc. For Instance, American Express reports Adjusted EPS, Boing reports core EPS, and P&G reports non-GAAP Earnings Per Share. Despite the different names and definitions for each, all are forms of the adjusted measures. Similarly, if an investor has 200 shares of ABC, each worth $100, a 2-for-1 split will cause the investor to have 400 more shares, and each Share is now worth 50% less, or $50. Ask a question about your financial situation providing as much detail as possible.